Efficiency scenarios of charcoal production and consumption – a village case study from Western Tanzania

HOFFMANN, H., UCKERT, G., RYBAK, C., GRAEF, F., SANDER, K. & SIEBER, S. 2018. Efficiency scenarios of charcoal production and consumption – a village case study from Western Tanzania. Food Security. Availability and access to energy is strongly linked to food security as cooking is needed to make foods ready for consumption. Without access to energy, there is no food security. In rural Tanzania, the population strongly depends on traditional biofuels such as firewood and charcoal. Under the pressure of population growth, energy demand will substantially increase in the next decades. The potential of improved efficiency in charcoal production and efficient cooking stoves were evaluated using scenario analysis. For quantitative data collection, a household survey was conducted in Laela village (2010). The sampling process was based on relative income classes (ICs) defined by local representatives and extending from “rich” (IC 1) to “below self-sufficiency” (IC 4). Based on quantitative survey data, we calculated the quantity of pre-carbonised fuelwood associated with charcoal consumption for ICs in order to display specific consumption patterns. Further, we applied scenario analysis and projected charcoal consumption by 2030 including population growth (+3.41%/year), improved kiln efficiencies (11.1%–20%) and different dissemination rates of efficient stoves (0%–100%). Results of consumption patterns showed that fuelwood consumption in IC 1 was twice that of IC 4, when a conversion efficiency of 11.1% was applied. Calculations of the scenario analyses showed that overall energy consumption will almost double by 2030. The combined approach of a moderate improvement of conversion efficiency (15.6%) combined with a dissemination rate for energy efficient stoves of 50% would overcome the effect of population growth in projected energy consumption and offer a means of coping with future bioenergy demands.


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